If you don’t know anything about Ubuntu, its Shortcut keys and Commands, then you are reading a complete and easy guide which will make you well-known with Basic Ubuntu Commands and Shortcuts 2021. Ubuntu is an open source and free Linux Distribution. It’s an Operating System (OS) which is popular for cloud computing with the assistance of OpenStack. It is created and coded by Canonical and also by a community which is under a governance model named meritocratic. Ubuntu was an African philosophy which is defined as “I am what I am because of who we all are” or “humanity to others” by Canonical.
As you know that Ubuntu can easily be customized for Linux distribution which is currently available over the internet. In other words whenever an ethical hacker or penetration tester hears the name of Linux the first that came in their mind is Ubuntu or Kali Linux. Because every Linux user has to use Ubuntu before they can access the Linux. Ubuntu is the OS which is used for teaching the beginners before they move towards the Linux.
10 Ubuntu Terminal Commands and Shortcut Keys (2021 Edition)
Now we are going to discuss some of the basic commands which can be used by beginners. These commands are enlisted and explained below:
Sudo which is also known as SuperUser DO is a command of Linux which allows you to execute the programs or administrative privileges, same like “Run as Administrator” in Microsoft Windows.
apt-get is an essential command available in Ubuntu which every beginner should know. This command is used to update, remove, install or upgrade any package. This command works on the available packages over the database.
Ls which is also known as the list is a command which is used to list all of the folders and files which are available in your current working directory. You can also view your content by simply specifying paths to the other directories.
Cd (change directory) which is also known as chdir is another Linux command. This command is also used to change the current working directory. In Ubuntu, it is a very popular and mostly used command. This command is effortless to use all you have to do is type cd with the folder name. You can use folders, full path or merely the name of the file within the directory.
pwd which is also known as “Print Working Directory” is the command which displays the pathname of the working directory on which you are currently working.
Cp which is also known as “Copy” is a Linux Command which is used to copy a file. To copy a file with the help of this command, you have to specify both locations in which the file is available and the path on which you want to copy the file.
Mv which is also known as “Move” is a command which is used to move a file from one location to another. Its working is also like cp command which is mentioned above.
rm which is also known as “Remove” is another command of Ubuntu which allows you to remove a specified file.
mkdir which is also known as “Make Directory” is a command which helps you to create a new directory. You can also define the location where you want to create a new directory. If you don’t specify the area then the directory will be created in the current working directory.
the history command is used to display all of the previous commands which you used earlier. There is a limited amount of history stored.
11. free –human:
This command will display all of your available RAM memory on your Ubuntu machine. It will tell you how much is in the cache and how much is available or being used currently.
This command displays all running processes/programs on Linux. It is just like a task manager in Windows. It shows you what process is using the most memory and CPU. A great alternative to top is htop.
Recommended read: 8 Best Kali Linux Terminal Commands for Hackers.
Basic Keyboard Shortcuts for Ubuntu (Updated)
As we (Human Beings) are gaining revolution in every field of life. We are also looking for shortcuts or small methods to solve our bigger problems. Just like that Ubuntu has offered you some of its Shortcut keys with which you can perform certain tasks in just a few buttons.
These shortcuts are enlisted below:
- Ctrl + Alt + L: This shortcut key is used to lock the screen.
- Ctrl + Alt + arrow key: This shortcut key is used for Switching to different Workspace.
- Ctrl + Alt + T: This shortcut key is used to open a terminal window.
- Ctrl + Alt + D: This shortcut key is used to show the desktop by minimizing all windows.
- Alt + F2: This shortcut key is used to open a “Run Application” window.
How to Make your own Keyboard Shortcuts in Ubuntu
Now I am going to tell you how to make your own shortcuts in Ubuntu. You just have to follow these simple steps:
- You have to go to the System option, then click on the Preferences and then select the Keyboard Shortcuts option.
- Once you have opened the Keyboard Shortcuts option then you have to click the Add button which is at the bottom-right corner of the dialog box.
- Now all you have to do is click Apply. Then you have to open the Keyboard Shortcuts window again and then click on your new custom shortcut which you just created. It would be disabled at the moment you have to enable it, and then you have to assign it an applicable keyboard command.
- You have just created your own custom shortcut key. Close the dialogue box and test your private Shortcut key.
You cannot only open your favorite programs by just creating their shortcut keys. But you can also create or write a short script through which you can automate some of the everyday tasks. The other advantage of creating Shortcut keys is that you can also assign those keys which are not available on your keyboard.
Benefits of using Ubuntu Shortcuts
The high flexibility of Ubuntu is only because of its sturdy shell, which means that it is the core of every Linux Variants. Ubuntu has a very user-friendly interface that you can easily interact with a broad and full band of commands.
BASH is used as a default shell by Ubuntu, and there are many other bash commands which can confuse every beginner in Ubuntu. But there is good news for you and it is that you don’t have to learn or acquire information about all of the bash commands. Especially if you are new and want to get well-known with Ubuntu Terminal before you kick start your work with Linux.
There are also some basic Ubuntu Commands which will assist you in performing some basic operations in Ubuntu. In Linux and Ubuntu, we use simple commands to do most of our jobs or tasks just like we use CMD commands in Windows.
Wrapping Up – Which is your Favorite Shortcut/Command?
In today’s guide, we came to know about a free Linux Distribution which is named as Ubuntu. We discussed a little about the working and advantages of Ubuntu. Then we discussed some of the useful commands for Ubuntu which can be very useful for the beginner users. All of the 10 basic ubuntu commands listed above also work in other distributions of Linux.
We also discussed the working of these commands along with their syntax or keyword. After that, we discussed the shortcut keys available within Ubuntu. Then we also discussed how you could create your own custom shortcut keys in Ubuntu.
You can check the official guide from Ubuntu for more commands.